linux 目录结构

摘自:http://www.comptechdoc.org/os/linux/usersguide/linux_ugfilestruct.html

这个目录结构介绍是我目前看到介绍最全的,有时间在翻译。

Linux Directory Structure

Note: Files are grouped according to purpose. Ex: commands, data files, documentation.

Parts of a Unix directory tree. See the FSSTND standard (Filesystem standard)

/			Root
root		The home directory for the root user
home		Contains the user's home directories
    -ftp		Users include many services as listed here
    -httpd
    -samba
    -user1
    -user2
bin			Commands needed during bootup that might be needed by normal users
sbin		Like bin but commands are not intended for normal users.  Commands run by LINUX.
proc		This filesystem is not on a disk.  Exists in the kernels imagination (virtual).  This directory
    			Holds information about kernel parameters and system configuration.
    -1		A directory with info about process number 1.  Each process
				has a directory below proc.  
usr			Contains all commands, libraries, man pages, games and static files for normal
    			operation.
    -bin		Almost all user commands.  some commands are in /bin or /usr/local/bin.
    -sbin		System admin commands not needed on the root filesystem.  e.g., most server 
    			programs.
    -include	Header files for the C programming language.  Should be below /user/lib for
    			consistency.
    -lib		Unchanging data files for programs and subsystems
    -local		The place for locally installed software and other files.
    -man		Manual pages
    -info		Info documents
    -doc		Documentation for various packages
    -tmp
    -X11R6		The X windows system files.  There is a directory similar to usr below this 
    			directory.
    -X386		Like X11R6 but for X11 release 5
boot		Files used by the bootstrap loader, LILO.  Kernel images are often kept here.
lib			Shared libraries needed by the programs on the root filesystem
    -modules 	Loadable kernel modules, especially those needed to boot the system after
			 disasters.
dev			Device files for devices such as disk drives, serial ports, etc.
etc			Configuration files specific to the machine.
    -skel		When a home directory is created it is initialized with files from this directory
    -sysconfig 	Files that configure the linux system for networking, keyboard, time, and more.
var			Contains files that change for mail, news, printers log files, man pages, temp files
    -file
    -lib		Files that change while the system is running normally
    -local		Variable data for programs installed in /usr/local.
    -lock		Lock files.  Used by a program to indicate it is using a particular device or file
    -log		Log files from programs such as login and syslog which logs all logins,
    			logouts, and other system messages.
    -run		Files that contain information about the system that is valid until the system is
    			next booted
    -spool		Directories for mail, printer spools, news and other spooled work.
    -tmp		Temporary files that are large or need to exist for longer than they should in
    			/tmp.
    -catman	A cache for man pages that are formatted on demand
mnt			Mount points for temporary mounts by the system administrator.
tmp			Temporary files.  Programs running after bootup should use /var/tmp.
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